Meaning of Dreams, Dream Dictionary and Dream Interpretation

As you spend more and more time on our website,  you may discover that you wish to learn even more about dreams and sleep.

Here are references to publications that will provide you with more detailed information about the meaning of dreams and related subjects.

You can also check individual posts for references.

Arzy, S., Seeck, M., Ortigue, S., et. al. (2006). Induction of an illusory shadow person. Nature, 443, 287.

Arzy, S., Thut, G., Mohor, C., et. al. (2006). Neural basis of embodiment:  distinct contributions of temporoparietal junction and extrastriate body area. Journal of Neuroscience, 26:31, 8074-8081.

Askerinsky, E. and Kleitman, N. (1953). Regularly occurring periods of eye motility, and concomitant phenomena, during sleep. Science, 118, 273-274.

Beijamini F., Pereira, S.I.R., Cini, F.A. and Louzada, F.M. (2014). After being challenged by a video game problem, sleep increases the chance to solve it. PLOS/ONE 9(1), e84342.

Beyaert, L. Greggers, U. & Menzel R. (2012). Honeybees consolidate navigation memory during sleep. Journal of  Experimental Biology, 218, 15.

Billiard, M. (1987). Lithium carbonate: effects on sleep patterns of normaland depressed subjects and its use in sleep-wake pathology. Pharmacopsychiatry, 20(5) 195-196.

Blanke, O., Landis, T., Spinelli, L., Seeck, M. (2003).  Out-of-body experience and autoscopy of neurological origin. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 127:2, 243-258.

Brown, T.P.,  Nusbaum, H.C. & Marboliash, D. (2010). Sleep-dependent consolidation of auditory discrimination learning in adult starlings, Journal of Neuroscience, (30)2, 609-613.

Brown, T.P.,  Nusbaum, H.C. & Marboliash, D. (2013). Sleep consolidation of interfering auditory memories in starlings. Psychological Science, 24, 439.

Blumenfeld, R.S.  and Ranganath C. (2006). Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex promotes long-term memory formation through its role in working memory organization. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26:3, 916-925.

Braun, A.R. Balkin, T.J., Wesenstein, N.J., et. al. (1998). Dissociated pattern of activity in visual cortices and their projections during human rapid eye movement sleep.  Science, 279:6347, 91-95.

Cai, D.J., Mednick, Sarnoff A., Harrison, Elizabeth M., et. al. (2009). REM, not incubation, improves creativity by priming associative networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106:25, 10130-10134.

Caples, S.M., Gami, A.S. and Somers, V.K. (2005). Obstructive sleep apnea. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142, 187:197.

Cooke, J. R., Loredo, J. S., Liu, L., et. al. (2006). Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and sleep architecture in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Drugs and Aging, 2006:23, 503-511.

Coolidge, F. (2006). Dream Interpretation as a psychotherapeutic technique. Oxford: Radcliffe Publishing.

Crick, F. and Mitchison, G. (1983). The function of dream sleep.  Nature. 304, 111-114.

DeRidder, D., Van Laere, K., Dupont, P., et. al. (2007). Visualizing out-of-body experience in the brain. New England Journal of Medicine, 357, 1829-1833.

Dieter, K. & Malber, R. (2010). A two-part, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of exogenous melatonin in REM sleep behaviour disorder. Journal of Sleep Research, 19:4, 591-596.

Dresler, M., Wehrle, R., Spoormaker, V., et. al. (2011). Neural correlates of dream lucidity obtained from contrasting lucid versus non-lucid REM sleep, a combined EEG/fMRI case study. Sleep, 35:7, 1017-1020.

Evans, J. I., Lewis, S.A., Gibb, I. A. M. & Cheetham, M. (1968). Sleep and barbiturates; some experiments and observations, British Medical Journal, 4(5626): 291-293.

Ferguson, J. M. (2001). SSRI Antidepressant Medications: Adverse Effects and Tolerability. Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry; 3:1, 22:27.

Fisher, C., Kahn, E., Edwards, A. and Davis, D. (1973). A psychophysiological study of nightmares and night terrors: I. Physiological aspects of the stage 4 night terror. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 157:2, 252-259.

Foulkes, D. (1985). Dreaming:  a cognitive-psychological analysis. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Freud S.  (1899). The interpretation of dreams.  English, translation, 1997 reprint,  Hertfordshire, UK: Wordsworth Editions Limited

Franklin, M.S. and Zyphur M. (2005). The role of dreams in the evolution of the human mind. Evolutionary Psychology, 3, 59:78.

Gaillard, J. M., Schulz P. & Tissot R. (1973). Effects of three bezodiazepines (Nitrazepma, Flunitrazepma and Bromazepam) on sleep of normal subjects, studied with an automatic sleep scoring system. Psychopharmacopsychiatry, 6(3): 207-217.

Ganguly-Fitzgerald, I., Donlea, J. & Shaw, P.J. (2006).  Waking experience affects sleep need in Drosophila. Science, 313(5794), 1775-1781.

Gillin, J.C., Wyatt, R. J. Fram, D. & Snyder F. (1978). The relationship between changes in REM sleep and clinical improvement in depressed patients treated with amitripytline. Psychopharmacology, 59:3, 267-272.

Hall, C.S. (1953.) A cognitive theory of dreams. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 273-282.

Hobson, J.A. (2009). The neurobiology of consciousness: lucid dreaming wakes up. International Journal of Dream Research, 2:2, 41-44.

Hobson, J.A. (2009). REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 803-813.

Hobson, J.A., and McCarley, R. W. (1977). The brain as a dream state generator: an activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134:12, 1335-1348.

Hobson, J.A., Pace-Schott, E.F. and Stickgold, R (2000). Dreaming and the brain: toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 793-842.

Hussaini, S.A., Bogusch, L., Landgraft, T. & Menzel, R. (2009). Sleep deprivation affects extinction but not acquisition memory in honeybees. Learning & Memory, 16, 698-705.

Jackson, C., McCabe, B., Nicol, A.U., Grout, A.S., Brown, M.W. & Horn, G. (2008). Dynamics of a memory trace: effects of sleep on consolidation. Current Biology (18)6, 393-400.

Klemm, W.R. (2011). Why does REM sleep occur? A wake-up hypothesis. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 5:73, 1-12.

Kunz, D., Mahlberg, M., Muller, C., Tilmann A. and Bes, F. (2013). Melatonin in Patients with Reduced REM Sleep Duration: Two Randomized Controlled Trials, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89:1, 128-134.

Le Glou, E., Seugnet, L., Shaw, P.J., Preat, T. & Goguel V. (2012). Circadian modulation of connsolidated memory retrievel following sleep depriviation in Drospophila. Sleep. (35)10, 1377-1348.

Lim, L.L. (2010). Disorders of arousal. In Lisak, R.P, Truong, D.D, Carroll, W.M. and Roongrooj, B.   International neurology: a clinical approach (571-572). New Jersey:  John Wiley & Sons.

Marzano, C., Ferrara, M., Maura. F. et. al. (2011). Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(18):6674-6683.

McNamara, P. (2007).  Costly signaling theory of REM sleep and dreams. Evolutionary Psychology, 5:1, 28044.

Pepeu, G. & Spignoli, G. (1989). Nootropic drugs and brain cholinergic mechanisms. Progress in Neuro-Pharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 13:1, S87-S88.

Power, A. (2004). Slow-wave sleep, acetylcholine and memory consolidation. Proceedings of the Natioanal Academy of Sciences, 101:7, 1795-1796.

Punamäki, Rai (1998). The role of dreams in protecting psychological well-being in traumatic conditions. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 22:3; 559-588.

Raskind, M.A., Peskind, E.R., Kanter, E.D., et. al. (2003). Reduction of nightmares and other PTSD symptoms in combat veterans by Prazosin: a placebro-controlled study. American Journal of Pyschiatry, 160: 371-373.

Reiser, M.F. (2001). The dream in contemporary psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158:3, 351-359.

Revonsuo, A. (2000). The reinterpretation of dreams: an evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 793-1121.

Schredl, M. (2003). Continuity between waking life and dreaming: a proposal for a mathematical model. Sleep and Hypnosis, 5:1, 26-39.

Solms, M. (1997). The neuropsychology of dreams: a clinico-anatomical study, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Solms, M. (1999). The interpretation of dreams and the neurosciences, British Psychoanalytical Society & Institute of Psychoanalysis.

Solms, M. (2001). Dreaming and REM sleep are controlled by different brain mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23:6, 843-850.

Sommers-Flanagan, J. and Sommers-Flanagan, R. (2004). Counseling and Pyschotherapy Theories in Context and Practice: Skills, Strategies and Techniques. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Szelenberger, W., Niemcewicz, S. and Dabrowska, A. J. (2005). Sleepwalking and night terrors: psychopathological and physiological correlates. International Review of Psychiatry. 17:4, 263-270.

Tarnow, E. (2003).  How dreams and memory may be related.  Neuro-psychoanalysis. 5:2, 1-16.

Taylor, F.B., Martin, P., Thomspon, C., et. al. (2008). Prazosin effects on objective sleep measures and clinical symptoms in civilian trauma posttraumatic stress disorder: a placebro-controlled study. Biological Psychiatry. 63:6, 629-632.

Tsoukalas, I. (2012). The origin of REM sleep: a hypothesis. Dreaming. 22:4, 253-283.

Van der Helm, E., Yao, J., Dutt, S., et. al. (2011). REM sleep depotentiates amygdala activity to previous emotional experiences. Current Biology. 21: 1-4.

Vogel, G.W., Vogel F., McAbee, R.S. & Thurmond, A.J. (1980), Improvement of Depression by REM Sleep Deprivation: New Findings and a Theory. Journal of the American Medical Association Pyschiatry, 27(3):247-253.

Vorster, P. & Born J. (2014). Sleep and memory in mammals, birds and invertebrates. Neuroscience & Behavioral Reviews, 50, 103-119.

White, D.P. (2005). Pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnea. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 172, 1363-1370.

Zhang, J.  (2004). Memory process and the function of sleep. Journal of Theoretics, 6:6.